The Relationship between Teacher-Student Rapport and Students Willingness to Cheat among Iranian High School Students in Bandar Abbas-دانلود پایان نامه ارشد زبان خارجی

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In 1941, Drak reported that academic dishonesty includes behaviors such as cheating on exams and copying other students’ homework.  According to Baird (1980), cheating is an unplanned opportunity. Students cheat to get a particular grade and to help a friend. As noted by Broussard and Golson (2000), dishonest students tend to share information from test and forge a signature. Anderman and Murdock (2007) indicated that students cheat to accomplish academic goals. McCabe and Trevino (1996) also added that students cheat because of self reported dishonest behaviors, personal characteristics of dishonest students, and correlations between organizational elements and self reported cheating rates. Bouville (2010) noted that students perform such action to obtain underserved high grades. So, they have unfair advantage over other students and this allures cheater to practice this vice in academics all the more.

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Importantly, what motivates students to cheat because having alternative solutions to the pressures that lead good students to be dishonest may be helpful as teachers work to encourage their students towards moral behavior. Students from all segments of education are cheating from grade school through graduate school, from the inner city to the country, from the poor to the rich schools, and in both public and private schools. They are cheating because they are scared of failing. They are cheating because they are scared of having a less than perfect grade point average. David Callahan (2004) cited that today people cheat in the world because our society has not only failed to punish cheating, but also in some ways has rewarded dishonesty, “The yawning gap between winners and losers is also having a lethal effect on personal integrity. In a society where winners win, bigger than ever before, then losers are punished more harshly, more people will do anything to be a winner. Cheating is more tempting if the penalties for failure are higher, and the rewards for success are greater. When people perceive this kind of choice, they will often kiss their integrity goodbye.”(p.69).

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Anderman and Midgley(2004) explained that students cheating relates to both individual and situational variables, such as motivational, moral, and developmental factors. The motivational and academic environment may cause different types of cheating behavior. Students who like to show their abilities to others may use cheating methods that reflect this particular goal orientation. As a result, a student with a high performance might engage in cheating behavior, such as coping off another student’s exam, plagiarizing a term paper, or using unauthorized sources to complete graded work, but likely he/she would not help others with cheating behaviors. Murdock, Miller, and Kohlhardt (2004) suggested that as well as this competent, situational goal orientation can influence student’s attitudes toward certain cheating behaviors. Murdock, Hale, and Weber (2001) proved that when middle school students believe their school environment fosters a performance goal orientation, they are more likely to report engaging in cheating behavior in course work. Maehr (1991) stayed that perhaps appearing competent during relation to others is stronger than engaging in the cheating behavior. Anderman, Griessinger and Westerfield (1998) claimed that if school environment is calm and stress free, students will have less incentive to cheat. Kohlberg (1985) recommended that theory of moral development investigate the moral aspects of cheating. Malinowski and Smith (1985) believed that “there is an inverse relationship between moral development level and cheating behavior in male undergraduates” (p.1016). When students are under the pressure by situation they cheat more.

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Since cheating is obviously immoral, it provides an unfair advantage and hinders learning.  As Drake (1941) pointed out, cheating can hurt instructors who may interpret such behavior as directed to themselves. The international center for academic integrity at Clemon University indicated that about 70% of the students engaged in some forms of cheating during their education process. Johnson and Martin (2005) noted that students use new techniques of cheating. Cheaters are using technology to undermine academic integrity and students are becoming innovative in their cheating methodologies. Staats, Hupp, Wallace, and Gresley (2009) stated that academic dishonesty in schools can be another form of student deviant behavior. It may harm other students and put integrity of university at risk.

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 Academic dishonesty or cheating is not restricted to a certain country or geographical area, but it is a universal phenomenon in educational institutions. Cheating has become a major concern on many high schools and colleges and its frequency is reportedly on the rise. Cheating refers to an immoral way of achieving a goal. Johnson and Martin (2005) showed that technological advances have made academic dishonesty easier to accomplish and harder for the faculty to identify. Symaco and Marcele (2003) studied that students sometimes consider cheating as a normal incidence and something ordinary moreover, they also discuss some factors in the school, such as classroom environment facilitates academic dishonesty in student body. Educators and employers are concerned about students cheating, because it impacts on the quality of education and reliability of assessment. Murdock and Anderman (2006) suggested that cheating on academic work involves different kinds of psychological phenomena, including learning, development, and motivation. These phenomena form the core of the educational psychology. From the perspective of learning, cheating is a strategy that acts as a cognitive shortcut, whereas effective learning often involves the use of complex self-regulatory and cognitive strategies or simply because they do not want to invest on time in using such strategies. From a developmental perspective, cheating may occur in different quantities and qualities depending on student’s levels of cognitive, social, and moral development. Thus cheating occurs less in younger children than in adolescents.

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Contents                                                                                                                         page                                         

 

 

Acknowledgements............................................................................................i

 

Dedication .........................................................................................................ii

 

Table of contents...............................................................................................iii

 

List of tables......................................................................................................VI

 

List of figures....................................................................................................vii

 

Abstract...........................................................................................................viii

 

Chapter1. Introduction......................................................................................1

 

1.1.Preliminaries…………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

 

1.2. Statement of the problem……………………………………………………………………………..3

 

1.3. Significance of the study………………………………………………………………………………..4

 

1.4. Purpose of the study and research questions………………………………………………..5

 

1.5. Research question ………………………………………………………………………………………..5

 

1.6. Research hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………..5

 

1.7. Definition of key terms …………………………………………………................................6

 

 

                                                                III

 

1.7. Limitations and delimitations…………………………………………………………………….....6

 

 

Chapter 2. Review of the related literature ………………………………….....8

 

2.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………....9

 

2.2. Cheating and its types…………………………………………………………9

 

2.3. Cause of cheating……………………………………………………………. 15

 

2.4. Application of cheating…………………………………………………...… 18

 

2.5. Side effect of cheating……………………………………………………....  18

 

2.6. Feedback of cheating………………………………………………………... 21

 

2.7. Definition of rapport………………………………………………………..23

 

2.8. Benefits of building rapport between student and teacher……………...........23

 

2.9. Rapport- building strategies………………………………………………….24

 

2.10.Rapport, learning and teaching……………………………………………...25

 

2.11. The relationship between student-teacher rapport …………………………35

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Chapter3 Methodology………………………………………………………….37

 

3.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………..40

 

3.2. Design ……………………………………………………………………….40

 

3.3. Participant…………………………………………………………….……...41

 

3.4. Instrument……………………………………………………………………41

 

VI

3.5. Rapport and cheating questionnaires……………………………………..41  3.6. Data collection procedure……………………………………………………42 3.7. Data analysis procedure………………………………………………………42       Chapter 4 Data analysis and result ………………………………………………….…48

3.8. Introduction…………………………………………………………………49

3.9. Result…………………………………………………………………………                                                             Chapter 5 Discussion, Conclusion, Implications, and Suggestions .................62

3.10. Introduction………………………………………………………………..63

3.11. Discution…………………………………………………………………...63

3.12. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..63

3.13. Implication………………………………………………………………….63

3.14. Suggestion…………………………………………………………………64

Reference………………………………………………………………………….66

Appendix…………………………………………………………………………79

 

 

VII

List of Tables

 

Table                                                                                                                   Page

Table 1. Students’ major in high school…………………………………………..45

Table 2. Students’ average in high school………………………………………...46

Table3. Item statistic………………………………………………………………46

Table4. Descriptive statistic for students’ rapport………………………………...47

Table5. Descriptive statistic for students’ cheating……………………………….48

Table6. Correlation between rapport and cheating………………………………..49

Table7. Nonparametric test for cheating and rapport……………………………..51

Table8. Kruskal-Wallis Test. Rapport ranks ……………………………………..52

 

Table9. Kruskal-Wallis Test. Cheating ranks……………………………………..53

 

Table10. Table of response frequency ……………………………………………54  

                                                                                                                                      Table11. Response percent…………………………………………………

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Abstract                                                                                                             

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Cheating has become one of the major problems on many high schools and college campuses. It is most prevalent at the college level. However, there have been reports of cheating incidents occurring at high school level. This research quantitatively would study the relationship between teacher- student rapport and students willingness to cheat in English classes of Iranian high schools in Bandar Abbas, with an average of between 17-18 years of age. First, they were given two questionnaires to answer. One questionnaire about rapport and another about cheating. From data collected, using correlation coefficient it was made clear  that there was not any significant relationship between teacher students  rapport and students willingness to cheat( i.e.: whether it would increase or decrease cheating in exams). Studying the views of high school students on such a serious issue as cheating could be beneficial in looking at ways to prevent and address this problem in future.

Key words: academic dishonesty, rapport, cheating

 

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