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2.4.2 Definitions of Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension traditionally refers to a reader’s complete understanding or full grasp of meaning in a text. However, according to Yang (2002) this is a broad definition and causes some confusion. Scovel (1998) states that, “Comprehension is not an absolute state where language users either fully comprehend or are left completely in the dark; rather, comprehension involves an active, dynamic, and growing process of searching for interrelationships in a text” (cited in Yang, 2002, P. 2).  He defines comprehension as the reader’s understanding of proposition -the basic unit of meaning- in the text. Since the proposition consists of words, sentences, or paragraphs, readers’ cognitive levels of comprehension can be graded based on these propositions. That is, one person might only engage in lexical comprehension (words), while another may get involved in syntactic comprehension (sentences), the level of which is obviously higher than the former.

According to the reader’s purposes in reading and the type of reading used, reading comprehensions are often distinguished. They are commonly referred to as: “literal comprehension” which is reading in order to understand, remember, or recall the information explicitly contained in a passage; “inferential comprehension” that is reading in order to find information which is not explicitly stated in a passage, using the reader’s experience and intuition, and by inferring; “critical or evaluative comprehension” takes place to compare information in a passage with the reader’s own knowledge and values; and reading to gain an emotional or other kind of valued response from a passage which is called “appreciative comprehension” (Richard, Platt, & Platt, 1992).

RAND Reading Study Group (2002) defines reading comprehension as “the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language” (P. 11).  They consider three elements for reading comprehension: “1) The reader who is doing comprehending, 2) the text that is to be comprehended, 3) the activity in which comprehension is a part” (P. 11). They further state that three elements define reading comprehension as a phenomenon that occurs within a large socio-cultural content that shapes and is shaped by the reader that interacts with each of the three elements. They maintain that understanding requires acknowledging that it is a cognitive, linguistic, and cultural activity.

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2.4 Reading Comprehension

 

Most researches on reading now focus on the effective reading strategies that increase students' comprehension. Guthrie (1996) argues that most researchers study a single cognitive strategy, rather than conducting a long-term study of multiple strategies. As Guthrie puts it:

Engaged reading is based on motivational and cognitive characteristics of the reader who is intrinsically motivated, builds knowledge, uses cognitive strategies, and interacts socially to learn from text. These engagement processes can be observed in student’s cognitive effort, perseverance, and self-direction in reading.

It is the teacher’s responsibilities to motivate reading by selecting the appropriate materials and especially for those at the early stages of learning. Guthrie and Humenick (1996) performed a meta-analysis of studies that manipulated several aspects of intrinsic motivation support for reading. These findings suggest that "meaningful conceptual content in reading instruction increases motivation for reading and text comprehension". This motivation-supporting practice showed that students who were provided choice of text performed higher on reading tasks than those with no choice. The third practice was using interesting texts. This conforms to Hedge's proposal that in selecting task texts, teachers should seek interesting texts and consider variety of topics. Readers' interest can be revealed by setting "a reading interest questionnaire" where students check the fields that suit their interest, i.e. short stories, thrillers, science fiction, etc. Since "each learner will have different strengths to build on and different weaknesses to overcome"(Hedge, p.205).

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  • Foreign Language Reading

For many students if not all, reading in a foreign language is a different experience in comparison with the same process in their first language which may even result in less understanding. Now the question is that whether reading problem in a foreign language is simply a problem of knowing words and grammar of that language or it is a problem of reading ability (Alderson, 1984). Regarding the question, Alderson (1984) asserts that the reason students cannot read adequately in English is that they cannot read adequately in their native language in the first place. Jolly (1978) also claims that success in reading a foreign language depends on one’s first language reading ability rather than the level of the student in the second language. He states that reading in a foreign language requires the transference of old skills, not the learning of new ones; therefore, the reason why students cannot read in a desirable fashion is that they either do not possess the old skills or because they have failed to transfer them (cited in Alderson, 1984).

Yorio (1971) takes a contrary view. He believes that the problems of second language readers are due to lack of familiarity with the new language, and this inadequate knowledge of the target language prevents them from using the essential textual cues in reading. In this view, interference from the first language makes the problem of second language reader even more complex.

 

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2.3 Reading

As Al-Issa (2006) states "reading is a multi-leveled and interactive process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text using their schemata" (p.41). While it has been known for some time that both content and formal schemata are necessary for a complete understanding of written texts in a reader's first language (L1), and has been suspected to be true in a reader's second language (L2) (Al-Issa, 2006). Many studies have investigated the effect of various reading methods and techniques on reading comprehension (Abdel-Rehim, 1995; ElNagar, 1994; Kitao, 1994; Fowler, 1993; Blue, 1992; Culver, 1991 and Wang & Qi, 1991).Some others aimed at improving comprehension and reading rate (Trent &Truan, 1997; Haberlandt, 1989 and Jacobson 1988). There are different types of reading comprehension distinguished according to the reader's purpose in reading: literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, critical comprehension and appreciative comprehension. (Richard, Platt and weber, 1985, p.238)

Few studies have been conducted to show the importance of prior knowledge of the world on ESL/EFL learners’ reading comprehension. All of these studies emphasized the fact that the ability to understand a text is based not only on the reader's linguistic knowledge, but also on general knowledge of the world and the extent to which that knowledge is activated during processing.

 

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2.2.2 Language Learning and Strategy Use

Within the area of foreign language research, a number of studies indicate that learning strategies play a significant role in successful language learning. Politzer and McGroarty (1985) claimed that language strategies are associated with language acquisition. They may improve learners' learning of the forms and functions, which are required for comprehension and production. Moreover, learners utilize strategies to aid the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information.

Anderson (1991) realized after strategy lessons in different contexts, adult second language learners conducting various abilities used similar strategies. In his report Anderson claimed teaching a comprehensive range of strategies, concluding that successful readers knew which strategies to use in given contexts and how to use them successfully with other strategies (cited in Lawrence, 2007, p. 57).

 

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2.2.1 Categories of Language Learning Strategies

 

Considerable effort has gone into classifying the strategies that learners use. Two of the most commonly cited classifications are O'Malley and Chamot’s (1990) and Oxford's (1990). The former is based on a three-way distinction between cognitive, metacognitive, and socio-affective learning strategies, whereas the latter is hierarchical, with a general distinction made between direct and indirect strategies, each of which is then broken down into a number of subcategories. Moreover, Oxford (1990) has developed versions of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) to measure learners' self-reported strategy use in both second and foreign language settings. Oxford classified strategies into two major categories: direct and indirect strategies.

 

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2.2 Language Learning Strategies

Although there has been a great deal of research on language learning strategies defining those strategies is not clear-cut. While there is not great agreement between scholars’ definition, as stated in Griffiths (2004) "Skehan (1989, p.285) entitles strategies as “explosion of activity”, Wenden and Rubin (1987, p.7) state “the elusive nature of the term”, Ellis (1994, p.529) mentions it as “fuzzy”; and O'Malley , Chamot, Stewner-Manzanares, Kupper, & Russo (1985) believe that “there is considerable confusion about definitions of specific strategies and about the hierarchic relationship among strategies”".

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Cohen (1998) claims language learning strategies are those processes which are consciously selected by learners and which may result in action taken to enhance the learning or use of a second or foreign language, through the storage, retention, recall, and application of information about that language. Generally, language learning strategies are beneficial because they make students autonomous, that is, students can be responsible for their own learning (Nation, 2001, p.222).

As mentioned in National Reading Panel’s report (2000) there are three fundamental

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                        ii

ABSTRACT                                                                                               iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                          iv

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                    vii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                   viii

 

CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE                                     1

1.1 Introduction                                                                                           2

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                       5

1.3 Statement of the Research Questions                                                      6

1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses                                                    7

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1.5 Definition of Key Terms                                                                        7

1.5.1 Learning Strategies                                                                    7

1.5.2 Reading Comprehension                                                            8

1.5.3 Reading Strategies                                                                     8

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                        9

1.7 Limitations and Delimitations                                                                11

1.7.1 Limitations                                                                               11

1.7.2 Delimitations                                                                              12

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE               13

2.1 Introduction                                                                                           14

2.2 Language Learning Strategies                                                                14

2.2.1 Categories of Language Learning Strategies                               15

2.2.2 Language Learning and Strategy use                                          17

2.3 Reading                                                                                                 21

2.3.1 Types of Reading                                                                      22

2.3.2 Components of Reading                                                             23

2.4 Reading Comprehension                                                                        25

2.4.1 Theories of Reading Comprehension                                          26

2.4.2 Definitions of Reading Comprehension                                       27

2.4.3 Categories of Reading Comprehension                                       28

2.5 Reading Strategies                                                                                 29

2.5.1 Definitions of Reading Strategies                                               31

2.5.2 Categories of Reading Strategies                                                 32

2.5.3 Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension                        33

CHAPTER III: METHOD                                                                        36

3.1 Introduction                                                                                           37

3.2 Participants                                                                                           37

3.3 Instrumentations                                                                                    37

3.3.1 The Language Learning Questionnaire                                       38

3.3.2 The Reading Strategies Questionnaire                                        40

3.3.3 Reading Comprehension Test                                                    41

3.4 Procedure                                                                                              41

3.5 Design                                                                                                   42

3.6 Statistical Analysis                                                                                42

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA                                                     43

4.1 Introduction                                                                                           44

4.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Pilot Study                                                  44

4.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Main Administration                                   46

4.3.1 Descriptive Statistics of the Language Learning Questionnaire    46

4.3.1.1 Memory Strategies                                                        48

4.3.1.2 Cognitive Strategies                                                      50                                   4.3.1.3 Compensation Strategies                                                51

4.3.1.4 Meta-cognitive Strategies                                              53

4.3.1.5 Affective Strategies                                                       54

4.3.1.6 Social Strategies                                                           56

4.3.1.7 Comparing the SILL's Categories                                  57

4.3.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Strategies Questionnaire     59

4.3.3 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Comprehension Test          60

4.4 Testing the Hypotheses                                                                          61

4.4.1 Testing the First Hypothesis                                                      62                4.4.2 Testing the Second Hypothesis                                                  62

4.4.3 Testing the Third Hypothesis                                                     63

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS                           65     

5.1 Introduction                                                                                           66

5.2 Procedure and Summary of the Findings                                                 66

5.3 Discussion                                                                                             67

5.4 Pedagogical Implications                                                                       69

5.4.1 Implications for EFL Teachers                                                   70

5.4.2 Implications for EFL Learners                                                   71

5.4.3 Implications for Syllabus designers                                            72

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research                                                           72

REFERENCES                                                                                         73

APPANICES                                                                                             81

Appendix A: Learning Strategies Questionnaire                                           82

Appendix B: Reading Strategies Questionnaire                                             84

Appendix C: Reading Comprehension Test                                                 86

 

List of Tables

Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting           45

Table 4.2: Reliability of the PET Reading Comprehension Test Piloting                           45

Table 4.3: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Questionnaire Administration                      47

Table 4.4: Descriptive Statistics of the Memory Strategies                                               49

Table 4.5: Descriptive Statistics of the Cognitive Strategies                                             50

Table 4.6: Descriptive Statistics of the Compensation Strategies                                      52

Table 4.7: Descriptive Statistics of the Meta-cognitive Strategies                                     53

Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics of the Affective Strategies                                              55

Table 4.9: Descriptive Statistics of the Social Strategies                                                   56

Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Categories Means                                      58

Table 4.11: Descriptive Statistics of the SORS Questionnaire Administration                   59

Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics of the PET Reading Comprehension

Test Administration                                                                                       60

Table 4.13: Correlation between Reading Strategies and Reading

Comprehension                                                                                            62

Table 4.14: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and

Reading Comprehension                                                                               63

Table 4.15: Correlation between Language Learning Strategies and

Reading Strategies                                                                                        64

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 4.1: Score Distribution of the SILL Questionnaire                                                  48

Figure 4.2: Score Distribution of Memory Strategies                                                        50

Figure 4.3: Score Distribution of Cognitive Strategies                                                      51

Figure 4.4: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies                                               53

Figure 4.5: Score Distribution of Meta-cognitive Strategies                                              54

Figure 4.6: Score Distribution of Affective Strategies                                                      56

Figure 4.7: Score Distribution of Social Strategies                                                            57

Figure 4.8: Score Distribution of Compensation Strategies                                               58

Figure 4.9: Score Distribution of the SORS Questionnaire                                                60

Figure 4.10: Score Distribution of the PET Questionnaire                                                61

 

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship among EFL learners' use of learning strategies, reading strategies, and reading comprehension. To fulfill this objective, 150 female EFL learners, between 25 and 42 years old, who were selected randomly from amongst those who were attending in upper-intermediate level of Safir language school were asked to take part in a piloted PET reading comprehension test and two questionnaires on Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), and Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). After discarding incomplete answer sheets, the acceptable cases were used in statistical analysis.

At first the PET was piloted and it was declared that it was reliable. Then the results from the main administration were analyzed to exclude the descriptive data; it showed that there was no skewness in the results. The next step was to test the hypotheses; in this regards, Pearson’s product moment correlation was applied and the outcome showed that the three hypotheses were rejected.

After analyzing the results it was concluded that the use of reading strategies has positive effect (r=0.93) on learners’ learning. Also it was shown that using learning strategies has a positive effect (r=0.61) on learners’ reading comprehension; construing that the reading strategies and language learning strategies have positive and high correlation with learners' comprehension.

 

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عنوان پایان نامه :

 the-relationship-among-efl-teachers-teaching-styles-neuro-linguistic-programming-and-autonomy

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4.1. Introduction

 

This chapter was an attempt to present the data analyses, calculations and results so as to demonstrate whether or not the three variables of the study — teachers’ teaching styles, autonomy and NLP, were significantly related. For so doing, the following hypotheses were stated:

H01:There is no significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their autonomy.

H02: There is no significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)‏.

H03: There is no significant relationship between teachers' autonomy and NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming).

H04: There is no significant difference between EFL teachers’ teaching styles and NLP in predicting autonomy?

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Furthermore, the arrangement of reporting the data was based on the chronological order, that is to say:

Firsly, the reliabilities of the instruments were reported, secondly, the preparatory analyses, and the results of testing the first two hypotheses including frequency statistics of different teaching styles, descriptive statistics, normality and the final results will be presented. In the next phase, the calculationsregarding the third hypothesis including the assumptions of linearity and normality are provided. Afterwards, in order to test the fourth hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was conducted and the results are reported, Finally, the discussion of the study is presented

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