عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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“The first level, technical reflection, is concerned with the efficiency and effectiveness of means to achieve certain ends, which themselves are not open to criticism or modification” (Hatton & Smith, 1995, p. 35). At this level, teachers “are primarily concerned with applying knowledge in order to reach pre-determined educational objectives. The end objectives are not questioned. The actions taken are evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness, economy, and efficiency” (El-Dib, 2007, p. 26). The second stage, practical reflection, paves the way for the examination of means and goals, the postulations upon which these are based, and the concrete results. It attempts to investigate, question, and clarify the objectives behind teaching activities (El-Dib, 2007). “This kind of reflecting, in contrast to the technical form, recognizes that meanings are not absolute, but are embedded in, and negotiated through, language” (Hatton & Smith, 1995, p. 35). The third level, which is presumed to be the highest level of reflection, is critical reflection. “At this level, the teacher is not simply concerned about the goals, the activities and the assumptions behind them but he is rather reflecting upon the larger context where all education exists” (El-Dib, 2007, p. 26). In addition to including emphases from the previous two, critical reflection also considers moral and ethical criteria and makes judgments about whether professional activity is impartial, fair and respectful of persons or not. What is more, “critical reflection locates any analysis of personal action within wider socio-historical and politico-cultural contexts (Hatton & Smith, 1995, p. 35).