عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
یک صفحه از متن پایان نامه فقط برای نمونه :
Zeichner and Liston, influenced by the work of Dewey, Habermas, and Van Manen (El-Dib, 2007; Korthagen, 2001a), saw reflection as comprised of two levels.
The first level is routine action, which is guided by outside authority without giving thought to justifications for the actions taken. The second level is reflective action, which is inspired by the concept of a teacher as a moral craftsperson who is concerned with the ethical issues involved in carrying out certain actions. (El-Dib, 2007, p. 27)
Within their ideology, “the emphasis is on the degree to which teachers critically reflect on the moral, ethical, and instrumental values embedded in their everyday thinking and practice” (Korthagen, 2001a). They “believe that reflective teachers must seek to find where and how their personal theories originated and subsequently question those theories, especially as they influence practice” (Farrell, 2004, p. 21).