عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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“During the last decade or two, reflection has been one of the most widely used terms in education” (Boody, 2008). Major universities teach reflection as a basis of their teacher education programs (Valli, 1992; cited in Stanley, 1998). Reflection has become an “academic virtue and source of privileged knowledge” (Lynch, 2000; cited in Fendler, 2003, p. 16) for a variety of reasons.
For one thing, reflection “converts action that is merely appetitive, blind, and impulsive into intelligent action” (Dewey, 1933, p. 17). “Reflective teachers can look back on events, make judgments about them and alter their teaching behaviors in light of craft, research, and ethical knowledge” (Valli, 1997; cited in Farrell, 2004, p. 7). It necessitates that teachers constantly observe their values and beliefs about teaching and learning in order to assume more responsibility for what they do in the classroom (Korthagen, 1993; cited in Farrell, 2004).
What is more, reflective teachers think logically “about why they employ certain instructional strategies and how they can improve their teaching to have a positive effect on students” (Lee H.-J. , 2005, p. 699).
Finally yet importantly, reflective teachers are more motivated to grow compared to their colleagues (Colton & Sparks-Langer, 1993), as “the process of reflection feeds a constructive spiral of professional development and competence” (Pollard & Triggs, 1997, p. 4).
The theoretical foundations of reflection date back at least to the first quarter of the twentieth century to the works of John Dewey (Akbari, 2007; Griffiths, 2000; Zeichner & Liston, 1996), who, in turn, had been influenced by the “ideas of many earlier educators such as Plato, Aristotle, Confucius, Lao Tzu, Solomon and Buddha (Hatton & Smith, 1995, p. 33). Some credit Socrates “as being the first educator to prize reﬂective ability” (Braun & Crumpler, 2004, p. 59). Nevertheless, reflection found its way into the literature of education in general and ELT in particular as a movement after the publication of The Reflective Practitioner by Donald A. Schon (1983). Prior to Schon’s publication, however, there had been some “reflective” moves. Van Manen, for example, proposed a classification for levels of reflection in 1977 (Van Manen, 1977).