عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
یک صفحه از متن پایان نامه فقط برای نمونه :
One of the much-debated concepts that Schon has introduced is the dichotomy between reflection and technical rationality. In The Reflective Practitioner (1983), Schon criticizes the technical rationality, which is “the dominant epistemology of practice” (p. 21) among professionals. What he means by technical rationality is the “instrumental problem solving made rigorous by the application of scientific theory and technique” (p. 21). For this, he blames Positivism, a powerful philosophical doctrine that rose in the nineteenth century, as he believes technical rationality is the heritage of that doctrine. In the Positivist epistemology of practice, scientific world-view and the idea that progress could be achieved by controlling science to create technology gained dominance. As a result, research and the production of science were prioritized, two tasks that were supposed to be undertaken only by professionals in universities and research centers. Once professionals have produced knowledge, practitioners were expected to be applying it in their practices. As a case in point, in the field of ELT, theoreticians devised (and still devise) teaching methods and teachers applied them in their classes.