عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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The first theory of teacher self-efficacy, social learning theory, was developed in 1966 by J. B. Rotter in an article entitled “Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement”. Based on this theory, when teachers believe that the influence of the environment overpowers their ability to influence students’ learning, reinforcement of their teaching efforts lies outside their control (external). On the other hand, teachers who confidently feel that they can teach unmotivated students, exhibit a belief that reinforcement of their teaching activities lies within their control (internal) (Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Researchers in RAND organizations, inspired by Rotter’s theory, added two questions to an already existing questionnaire. Teachers were asked to determine the degree of their agreement with these questions. The sum of these two items were called teacher efficacy, which indicated the degree to which teachers could internally control student motivation and learning (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). The two items were as follows.