عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
یک صفحه از متن پایان نامه فقط برای نمونه :
Practical reflection consists of a set of techniques incorporated to encourage teachers reflect on their actions (Akbari et al, 2010). Akbari et al. (2010) report the practical component including
those items that deal with the tools and the actual practice of reflection. Different tools/ procedures for the reflective practice include ‘journal writing,’ ‘lesson reports,’ ‘surveys and questionnaires,’ ‘audio and video recordings,’ ‘observation,’ ‘action research,’ ‘teaching portfolios,’ ‘group discussions,’ ‘analyzing critical incidents’ (Farrell, 2004; Murphy, 2001; Richards and Farrell, 2005; Richards and Lockhart, 1994). (p. 214)
Yayli (2009), too, believes that practical reflection “could be achieved through such sources as reflective journals, learning logs, lesson reports, autobiographies, collaborative diary keeping, audio and video recording, teacher narratives, portfolios, observation and action research (p. 1821). In the literature, the most popular methods of promoting practical reflection include keeping journals, audio/video recording of the class, using surveys and questionnaires, keeping web-blogs, and peer-observation (El-Dib, 2007; Farrell, 2004; Zeichner & Liston, 1996; Richards & Lockhart, 1996). What follows is a set of techniques that make up practical reflection.