عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001) developed their own self-efficacy scale and named it Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (OSTES). However, later they prefered the term teachers’ sense of efficacy to refer to Bandura’s self-efficacy (Shaughnessy, 2004), and accordingly, changed the name of their scale to Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). The inventory has two versions: long form with 24 and short form with 12 items.
Tested on a sample of 410 male and female participants, including both pre-service and in-service teachers, factor analysis yielded in three moderately correlated factors: Efficacy in Student Engagement, Efficacy in Instructional Strategies, and Efficacy in Classroom Management. Regarding the construct validity of the inventory, Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001) report that it was positively related to the previously constructed self-efficacy inventories. The developers report an internal consistency reliability of a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .90 for overall reliability. In addition, the developers report an alpha of .81 for Efficacy in Student Engagement, .86 for Efficacy in Instructional Strategies, and .86 for Efficacy in Classroom Management.
Ever since its development, TSES has enjoyed profound acceptance among researchers and is becoming a standard instrument in the field of teacher education (Ross & Bruce, 2007). It is also used widely in the teacher education context in Iran (Rastegar & Memarpour, 2009; Moaﬁan & Ghanizadeh, 2009). Some of the researches employing the scale include Ross and Bruce (2007); Tsigilis, Grammatikopoulos, and Koustelios (2007); Poulou (2007); Cheung, (2006). In their study entitled “Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial”, Ross and Bruce (2007) state that: