عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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Bandura (1997) regards high sense of instructional efficacy an essential part of teacher self-efficacy, as it helps teachers believe that difficult students can be taught through additional effort and proper techniques. He believes that teachers with low sense of instructional efficacy think they can do little with unmotivated students. He states that teachers’ instructional efficacy supports expansion of students’ intrinsic interests and academic self-directedness (Bandura, 1995). According to Bandura (1997), “Teachers who have a high sense of instructional efficacy devote more classroom time to academic activities, provide students who encounter difficulties with the guidance they need to succeed, and praise their academic accomplishments” (p. 241).
Gibson and Dembo (1984) also believe strongly that teachers’ instructional efficacy fosters mastery experiences of their students, and teachers with low instructional efficacy create negative classroom environments that weaken students’ sense of efficacy and cognitive development.
Chambers and Hardy (2005) consider teachers with high sense of instructional efficacy able to experiment with new methods of instruction. According to them, such teachers inquire about improved teaching methods and experiment with instructional materials.