پایان نامه رشته زبان خارجی: The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers

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 The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers 

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3.1     Definition

Many educators believe that reflection is very hard to define, as different educators sometimes mean different things by reflection (Yayli, 2009; Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010; Farrell, 2004; Hatton & Smith, 1995). In the articles on different aspects of reflection that proliferate rapidly in the literature, many definitions have been proposed. The following definition, however, seems to be capturing the complexity of the concept more successfully:

Reflection is a process, both individual and collaborative, involving experience and uncertainty. It is comprised of identifying questions and key elements of a matter that has emerged as significant, then taking one’s thoughts into dialogue with oneself and with others. One evaluates insights gained from that process with reference to: (1) additional perspectives, (2) one’s own values, experiences, and beliefs, and (3) the larger context within which the questions are raised. Through reflection, one reaches newfound clarity, on which one bases changes in action or disposition. New questions naturally arise, and the process spirals onward. (Jay & Johnson, 2002, p. 76)

     Murphy (2001) believes that “the purposes of reflective teaching are three-fold: (1) to expand one’s understanding of the teaching-learning process; (2) to expand one’s repertoire of strategic options as a language teacher; and (3) to enhance the quality of learning opportunities one is able to provide in language classrooms (pp. 499-500). To meet these aims, Reflective teachers are primarily expected to plan, prepare and act. They should also monitor, observe and collect data on their own and the students’ intentions, actions and feelings. The result, then, should be critically analyzed and evaluated so that it can be shared and judged.

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