عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension
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2.5 Reading strategies
Since the 1980s, research on language learning strategies, mainly reading strategies in both first language and second language reading has increased. Carrell, Gajdusek, and Wise (1998) explain the reason for the increase of researchers’ interests in reading strategy as follows: “Reading strategies are of interest not only for what they reveal about the ways readers manage interactions with written text but also for how the use of strategies is related to effective reading comprehension” (p. 97). Furthermore, The National Reading Panel (2000) reported, “the past two decades of research appear to support the enthusiastic advocacy of instruction of reading strategies” (p. 4-46).
Looking for the reasons of this trend, Grabe (1991) claims that the changing view of reading from a linear, bottom-up approach to a concept driven, top-down approach had a strong influence on reading instruction. Reading was characterized as an active process and students needed to be taught strategies to read more efficiently. The goal of reading instruction began to provide students with a range of effective approaches to text, such as helping students define goals and strategies for reading, to use pre-reading activities to enhance conceptual readiness, and to provide students strategies to deal with difficult syntax, vocabulary, and organizational structure. The strategies approach designed to increase reading comprehension developed from models of thinking and learning processes in response to models of mental processing (McKeown, Beck, & Blake, 2009).