پایان نامه ارشد زبان خارجی :The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers

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 The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers 

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2.3.3.2.1     Reflection-in-Action and -on-Action

Maybe the most outstanding contribution of Schon (1983) to the literature of reflection is the introduction of the frameworks of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. “Reflection-in-action occurs during the action present … when one can still change what one is doing and thus change the outcome” (Boody, 2008, p. 501). As Hatton and Smith (1995) put it,

Schon’s ‘reflection-in-action’ (1983; 1987) involves simultaneous reflecting and doing, implying that the professional has reached a stage of competence where she or he is able to think consciously about what is taking place and modify actions virtually instantaneously.  Most other kinds of reflection involve looking back upon action some time after it has taken place.  Certain models of what has been termed ‘technical reflection’ (Killen, 1989; Cruikshank, 1985) appear to be based on thinking about skills or competencies with a view to evaluating their effectiveness almost immediately after an attempt at implementation, and then making changes to behavior. (p. 34)

     In reflection-in-action, teaching decisions are made through an interaction between the professional knowledge stored in long-term memory and the information perceived in the environment (Colton & Sparks-Langer, 1993). It is, therefore, a means by which one can distinguish professional from non-professional practice (Hatton & Smith, 1995). Believing that all professions should model art schools in the way they educate artists, Schon (1987)  sees being able to reflect-in-action a state of art. This artistry and intuitive knowledge, he believes, is derived from professional experience. Schon “identified reflection-in-action as central to professional practice” (Griffiths, 2000, p. 541). He believed that reflection-in-action occurs when professionals encounter a situation that is exceptional or contains an element of surprise. Instead of resorting to past experience or referring to existing theories, “professionals draw on their repertoire of examples to reframe the situation and find new solutions. This in itself generates new reflection-in-action in a spiraling process” (Griffiths, 2000, p. 541). 

 

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