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2.3.3. Autonomy in Language Learning Setting
There are many contradictions regarding whether autonomy is an internal or external issue and it is yet to be discussed more, but according to Lynch (2001, pp. 390-391) autonomy is a concept to be practiced both, within and outside of institutional boundaries. On the other hand, Adamson & Sert (2012) alert that if autonomy exercised to its full effectiveness, needs to be an all-pervading philosophy of life shaping an individual’s personal cognition and behavior in the community.
When we go through research regarding educational psychology it is obvious that autonomy is strongly supported where students and teachers’ highest performances are concerned. Assor et al. (2002) and Wentzel (2002) acknowledged that an autonomy-supportive teaching style is positively associated with more school engagement, higher grades and better school adjustment. Teacher autonomy, on the other hand, is “the capacity, freedom, and/or responsibility to make choices concerning one’s own teaching” (Aoki ,2000; p.3).
deCharms (1968) comments due to the fact that an autonomous self-regulation pertains to actions that are freely endorsed and are based on integrated values and interests, the perceived locus of causality of their actions is internal. Furthermore, some experts discuss that autonomous self-regulation in the educational domain is associated with higher feelings of self-perceived and teacher rated academic competence, with use of optimal learning strategies (Fortier et al., 1995; Grolnick et al., 1991; Yamauchi et al., 1999).