عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Use of Language Learning Strategies, Reading Strategies, and Reading Comprehension
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2.2.1 Categories of Language Learning Strategies
Considerable effort has gone into classifying the strategies that learners use. Two of the most commonly cited classifications are O’Malley and Chamot’s (1990) and Oxford’s (1990). The former is based on a three-way distinction between cognitive, metacognitive, and socio-affective learning strategies, whereas the latter is hierarchical, with a general distinction made between direct and indirect strategies, each of which is then broken down into a number of subcategories. Moreover, Oxford (1990) has developed versions of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) to measure learners’ self-reported strategy use in both second and foreign language settings. Oxford classified strategies into two major categories: direct and indirect strategies.