عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
یک صفحه از متن پایان نامه فقط برای نمونه :
18.104.22.168 Akbari’s Model of English Teacher’s reflection
Prior to proposing their teacher’s reflection model, Akbari et al. (2010) conducted a comprehensive literature review to evaluate available models of teacher’s reflection and their components, and to verify all the attempts that investigated reflection based on the processes or the stages it entailed. The aim of this review was to see what types of constructs and behaviors were typically categorized as reflective practice (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010). The results yielded “more than six hundred reflective categories and behaviors” (p. 213). After discarding the overlapping items, they translated the remaining 302 items “into actual instances of reflective behavior” (p. 213). In the Final stage, they grouped all the developed items and found themes or commonalities among them. The results were the following five overarching components of reflection: practical, cognitive, affective, meta-cognitive, and critical.
Practical element consists of those activities that comprise the actual act of reflection by the practitioner. Keeping journals, writing lesson reports, conducting surveys, audio and video recordings of the classes, and observation are examples of such actions (Richards & Lockhart, 1999; Murphy 2001; Farrell, 2004; Richards & Farrell, 2005; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).
Cognitive element includes all the attempts that the teacher makes in order to achieve professional development. Doing action research; attending seminars, conferences, and workshops;and reading professional literature are some of the activities done to reflect cognitively (Farrell, 2004; Richards & Farrell, 2005; cited in Akbari et al., 2010)
Learner element (affective) is concerned with reflecting on learners’ emotional responses to the lessons, their learning, and their background (Pollard et al. 2006; Hillier, 2005; Pacheco, 2005; Richards and Farrell, 2005Richards and Lockhart, 1999; Zeichner and Liston, 1996; cited in Akbari et al., 2010).