عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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.2.3.2 Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES)
In the early 1980s, Gibson and Dembo (1984) developed a Likert-type scale with 30 items, called Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES) based on Bandura’s (1977) social cognitive theory. Each item was assessed on a scale of 6 points, ranging from “completely agree” to “completely disagree” with the item. Initial factor analysis showed the existence of two factors that made up 30% of the variance of the scores obtained (Cruz & Arias, 2007). Gibson and Dembo presumed that these factors corresponded to the two examples of expectancies identified in Bandura’s socio-cognitive theory: perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectations (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001; Brouwers & Tomic, 2003). In Bandura’s theory, perceived self-efficacy “refers to a person’s specific conviction to manage the activities necessary for a specific task to be accomplished” (Cruz & Arias, 2007, p. 642), while “outcome expectation describes an individual’s estimation of the possible consequences of carrying out an action at the expected level of competence” (Cruz & Arias, 2007, p. 642). Consequently, Gibson and Dembo called the first factor “personal teacher efficacy”, which was identified with perceived self-efficacy. The second factor was called general teaching efficacy, considering that it corresponded with outcome expectations. “Subsequent studies have shown that some of the items included in the original study loaded both factors in such a way that various researchers have used a reduced version with 16 items” (Cruz & Arias, 2007, p. 643). According to Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001), “the lack of clarity about the meaning of the two factors and the instability of the factor structure make this instrument problematic for researchers” (p. 789).
Dellinger et al. (2008) state the shortcomings of TES as follows: