عنوان پایان نامه :
The Relationship between Teacher-Reflection and Teacher-Efficacy of Novice and Experienced EFL Teachers
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The second theory informing teacher self-efficacy developed out of Bandura’s social cognitive theory, assimilating it with self-efficacy. In his theory, Bandura defines self-efficacy as, “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave” (Bandura, 1994, p. 71). He describes self-efficacious people as those who view problems as challenges that they need to master, and not obstacles that they fear to approach. For him, self-efficacy is a mechanism of behavioral change and self-regulation (Henson, Kogan, & Vacha-Hasse, 2001). According to Bandura, the belief that one can produce desired effects by what they do provides incentive to act. As a result, he sees efficacy beliefs as major basis of action (Bandura, 1997). He regards self-efficacy as a construct that has an impact on every aspect of actions – the courses of action people pursue, their perseverance when they face failure, their control of stress and depression, and their levels of accomplishment (Bandura, 1997). Bandura states that beliefs of inefficacy results in despair and apathy (Bandura, 1995). He proceeds so far as to believe that people will not attempt to do anything if they believe that they have no power to gain results (Bandura, 1997; 1994).